A full-page advertisement in the Chicago Tribune on Tuesday, by industry body FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry), gives an elaborate account of how the legendary Tata Group, along with several others like Ranbaxy, Mahindra USA, Bharat Forge, ITC Kitchens of India and HCL America have created thousands of jobs in America by investing in different sectors of the US economy. According to FICCI, Indian corporate investments in the U.S. were over $10.25 billion in 2007.
2. Watch a video here from India Reuters on India Inc.'s ad.
3. The Chicago Sun-Times and more than 70 sister newspaper titles throughout the metro area have entered into an agreement to outsource most of its print and online ad production. The outsourcing agreement with Elgin-based Affinity Express Inc. is expected to reduce operating costs by $3 million a year at The Sun-Times News Group. Affinity, with production offices in India and the Philippines, was chosen because of its “extensive infrastructure and expertise in the field of advertising production for news companies,” including the Charlotte Observer and the Columbus, Ohio Dispatch.
Comment: Wouldn't it have been ironic if the production of the FICCI's full-page ad in the Chicago Tribune had been outsourced to India?
It's possible the only way that the U.S. newspaper industry can remain profitable and survive in the future is with increased outsourcing to India? In other words, although some ad production might be outsourced to India, those outsourcing efficiencies and cost savings might end up helping to save thousands and thousands of U.S. newspaper jobs.
"The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression" documents communist crimes against humanity, but also crimes against national and universal culture, from Stalin's destruction of hundreds of churches in Moscow to Ceausescu's leveling of the historic heart of Bucharest to the widescale devastation visited on Chinese culture by Mao's Red Guards.
As the death toll mounts—as many as 25 million in the former Soviet Union, 65 million in China, 1.7 million in Cambodia, and on and on—the authors systematically show how and why, wherever the millenarian ideology of Communism was established, it quickly led to crime, terror, and repression. An extraordinary accounting, this book amply documents the unparalleled position and significance of Communism in the hierarchy of violence that is the history of the twentieth century. Essentially a body count of communism's victims in the 20th century, the book draws heavily from recently opened Soviet archives. The verdict: communism was responsible for between 85 million and 100 million deaths in the century.
Stagflation update: the chart above compares the growth of the monetary base during the peak of the stagflation period of the 1970s (the 85 month period from December 1974 to December of 1981) to the growth of the monetary base over the last 85 months, from January 2001 to January 2008. (The monetary base is set to equal an index value of 100 in the beginning month of each sample period.)
Notice that there is a significant difference between the two periods: During the 1970s, the monetary base grew by more than 70%, compared to less than a 40% growth during the last 7 years.
Bottom Line: The money supply data (M1, M2 and monetary base) don't support the position that we are entering a period of 1970s-like stagflation.
As an update to this CD post on stagflation using M1 money supply, the chart above compares the growth of M2 during the peak of the stagflation period of the 1970s (the 85 month period from December 1974 to December of 1981) to the growth of M2 over the last 85 months, from January 2001 to January 2008. (M2 is set to equal an index value of 100 in the beginning month of each sample period.)
Notice that there is a significant difference between the two periods: During the 1970s, M2 grew by almost 95%, compared to a 50% growth during the last 7 years.
Bottom Line: The money supply data (M1 and M2) don't support the position that we are entering a period of 1970s-like stagflation.
The topic of stagflationwas discussed tonight on CNBC's "Kudlow and Company," and guest John Browne, former member of British Parliament and ultra-stagflationist, argued that we are facing a "far, far worse situation than the 1970s," and further predicted that we are "facing a massive recession."
Larry Kudlow disagreed, and said "Stagflation is a total canard."
The money supply data support Larry Kudlow, not John Browne. The chart above compares the growth of M1 during the peak of the stagflation period of the 1970s (the 85 month period from December 1974 to December of 1981) to the growth of M1 over the last 85 months, from January 2001 to January 2008. (M1 is set to equal an index value of 100 in the beginning month of each sample period.)
Notice that there is a significant difference between the two periods: During the 1970s, M1 grew by almost 60%, compared to a 24% growth during the last 7 years. And for the last 3.5 years, M1 has been flat, with almost 0% growth!
Like Larry Kudlow, when it comes to stagflation, "I don't buy it for a nanosecond." Not gonna happen.
"The medical establishment is opposed to drop-in clinics in Wal-Marts and other retail stores. But self-interested doctors need to get over their archaic ways of doing business," says Dr. Rahul K. Parikh, a member of the American Academy of Family Practice, and the American Academy of Pediatrics, writing in Salon.com:
The medical community needs a second opinion. Retail clinics are good for American healthcare. By giving doctors a run for their money, they force us to do something we don't do well: innovate. At their best, retail clinics can make doctors look like smart entrepreneurs instead of a self-interest group futilely trying to protect archaic ways of doing business.
The Decline of Detroit vs. the Rise of Indianapolis
Fifty years ago, Detroit was the fourth largest city in the United States, with a population of 1.7 million people, and at $8,500 per year, one of the richest cities in terms of per capita income. It was 3.5 times the size of Indianapolis, the 26th largest city, whose income was almost identical on a per capita basis (see population chart above, click to enlarge). Today, Detroit and Indianapolis are the 11th and 12th largest cities, respectively, with Detroit's population cut in half from 50 years ago (and losing 3,000 people per year this decade), while Indianapolis has grown by 70% during the same time frame. Remarkably, Indianapolis now has a per capita income 50% greater than Detroit's.
How did this happen? One answer, according to the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, is that Detroit's city government is far larger, more regulation prone, and more bureaucratic than Indianapolis's city government: the ratio of residents to city employees, a key measure of city government productivity, is 50:1 in Detroit, one of the worst in the United States, but is 203:1 in Indianapolis, one of the best. More broadly, the central issue in political economy concerns the optimal delineation of the sphere of government activity versus that ascribed to markets, and in this essay we examine this question from the vantage point of municipalities.
Another answer: Indianapolis Mayor Stephen Goldsmith took office in 1992, committed to a turnaround based on privatization of city services, and creating a climate more conducive to entrepreneurship. During his eight-year tenure as mayor, the city's population increased by nearly 50,000 residents, induced by a more business-friendly environment and its corollary, smaller government. The Indianapolis turnaround was engendered via a three-part program that included privatization and transparency.
NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Personal computer and printer maker Hewlett-Packard reported strong gains in sales and earnings for its fiscal first quarter Tuesday, a sign that the tech giant is gaining market share against key rivals and that its cost cutting is paying dividends. Shares of HP surged nearly 6% in after hours trading.
For its first quarter, which ended in January, HP's net revenue jumped 13% to $28.5 billion, ahead of the $27.6 billion that analysts were expecting.
The company said that 69% of its first-quarter revenue came from outside the United States. Revenue from emerging markets Brazil, Russia, China and India grew 35% from a year ago.
Three Carpe Diem charts from this post were featured on CNBC's "Kudlow and Company" tonight as part of the segment "Kudlow 101: An Outlook on Commercial, Consumer, Industrial and Real Estate Loans." Here is the link.
Rich Individuals Should Pay More Taxes, But Wealthy Corporations Should Pay Less?
SAN FRANCISCO — Bill Gates Sr. — father of the co-founder of Microsoft who is the USA's richest man — is fighting to keep Bush from killing the estate tax that hits the super-rich but also some small-business owners and farmers. His son agrees with him, as do billionaires Warren Buffett, David Rockefeller Sr. and others.
DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) - An Iowa Senate committee has approved a bill to grant tax breaks to Microsoft -- if the computer giant decides to put a project in Iowa.
The principle cause for concern today is the paralysis of the credit markets. Credit is always key to the expansion of the economy. The collapse of confidence in credit markets is now preventing that necessary extension of credit. The decline of credit creation includes not only the banks but also the bond markets, hedge funds, insurance companies and mutual funds.
The dysfunctional character of the credit markets means that a Fed policy of reducing interest rates cannot be as effective in stimulating the economy as it has been in the past. Monetary policy may simply lack traction in the current credit environment.
The collapse of the credit markets began last summer when the subprime mortgage crisis demonstrated that financial risk of all types had been greatly underpriced, that the market prices of complex financial assets overstated their true values, and that the credit scores provided by rating agencies are not to be trusted. Because market participants now lack confidence in asset prices, they are unwilling to buy existing assets, thus preventing current asset owners from providing credit to new borrowers. Comment: What collapse/paralysis of the credit market? The most up-to-date banking data suggest otherwise.
According to quarterly banking data released yesterdayby the Federal Reserve on "end of period levels" through the end of 2007 for all banks, bank credit/loan volume is at an all-time record for all types of credit (business, consumer, real estate)! See charts above, click to enlarge. If there is some paralysis/collapse of the U.S. credit markets, how can bank loan volume be at all-time historical record high levels?
Vikki Reyes has had it with Locke High, the school her daughters attend in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. She walked in on class one day and recalls “the place was just like a zoo!” Students had taken control, while the teacher sat quietly with a book.
Frank Wells has also had it with Locke High. When he became principal he says gangs ruled the campus. He tried to turn things around but ran into a “brick wall” of resistance from the school district and teachers union.
Locke seemed destined to languish in high crime and low test scores until Wells, Reyes, and many reform-minded teachers joined with a maverick named Steve Barr in an attempt to break free from the status quo. Their battle is just one example of the charter school education revolt that’s erupting across the nation.
NEW YORK (Fortune) -- Economic conservatives should take heart. John McCain's chief economic advisor - and perhaps his closest political friend - is the ultimate pure play in free market faith, former Texas Senator Phil Gramm (Ph.D Economics, University of Georgia, 1967).
If McCain follows Gramm's counsel, and most of his current positions are vintage Gramm indeed, his policies as president would represent not just a sharp departure from the Bush years, but an assault on government growth that Republicans have boasted about, but failed to achieve, for decades.
Congress and the Pros/Cons of Artificial Stimulus: They Feel Strongly Both Ways
Let’s hear it for irony. In almost simultaneous events last week, Congress attacked baseball players for taking performance-enhancing drugs while at the same time supporting artificial and temporary stimulus for the U.S. economy no matter what the long-term costs. Many people don’t like professional baseball players using steroids because they mask the underlying ability of the player. They taint the results. But so does artificial economic stimulus. Monetary policy accommodation can help people feel wealthier for awhile, but it cannot create wealth. Printing money does not make anyone wealthier. If it did, then counterfeiting should be made legal and everyone in the world would then be wealthy. The same is true for tax rebates. If they really could increase wealth, then why not make them much larger and much more frequent?
In the end, trying to increase spending without increasing the country’s productive capacity is a fool’s errand. Boosting demand without boosting supply causes a misallocation of resources. Like with steroids any boost is temporary and risks longer-term economic problems.
Read the full article here from First Trust Portfolio economists Brian Wesbury and Bob Stein.
1. Internet access in Cuba is highly restricted, but the video above, made by several university students there, was recently leaked to the BBC and posted on YouTube, showing them grilling the speaker of parliament and voicing their complaints about wages, unfavorable currency rules and unfair elections. Things like this have been happening since Raul Castro called for a debate on how Cuba should change in July last year.
"Maybe things will change now. For me and the young generation, this news comes as a great relief. We've never had another president, and we saw him as an obstruction to our country's development. I'm not saying that's what everyone thinks; for some this will be a huge shock.
Fidel is a symbol. We hope that his departure will close a chapter of history for the country and help the Cuban government to aim for more political and economic liberty. I do think the country will force its leaders to move on, because we've really had enough, we need a change.
But I'd say that the most likely scenario is that we see a Chinese-style regime imposed in Cuba: the development of economic productivity while political liberty is kept to a minimum. And, remember, Castro's announced that he'll no longer be head of state, but not that he'll resign as first secretary of the communist party. So it's possible that he'll still have a strong influence in the government."
Wal-Mart Stores, the world's largest retailer, reported today its renewed focus on low prices paid off with a 4% rise in profit for its fourth quarter as holiday shoppers bought discounted groceries and home electronics as well as health and wellness products.
International growth also helped boost profit and sales. Stores in 13 countries outside the U.S. accounted for about 25% of total company sales in the quarter, up from 23% a year earlier.
Net sales grew 8.3% to $106.27 billion, helped by 18.8% international growth, 6.3% growth at Sam's Club, and 5.0% growth at U.S. Wal-Mart stores (see chart above, click to enlarge).
“For the fourth quarter, we topped $100 billion in sales, the first time in history that any retailer has reached this milestone in a single quarter,” said Lee Scott, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. president and chief executive officer. “We had a very strong underlying operating performance, exceeding our expectations for the quarter. In addition to another year of record sales and earnings, we also delivered a record return to our shareholders this year through more than $11 billion in share repurchase and dividends.”
Comment: Another example of a U.S. corporation reporting record sales and profits, partly because of strong global sales. Also, Wal-Mart's record quarterly sales of $106 billion includes sales through January 2008, suggesting that consumer spending remains healthy through the first month of this year, suggesting that we are not in recession.
Lesson Two: Market forces, not government regulation, provide the most effective impetus for higher gas mileage. America's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) law -- the latest version of which requires car companies to average 35 mpg across their model lineups by 2020 -- provides posturing for politicians and comfort for their more-gullible followers who believe in free lunches. But CAFE, which first became law in 1975, didn't prevent the SUV boom in the 1990s that environmental groups so disdain.
During that boom both consumers and car companies were reacting to market forces, not CAFE. For consumers, the market force was cheap gasoline. For auto makers it was profits, which are more substantial on SUVs than they are on fuel-efficient small cars. In fact, GM, Ford and Chrysler gravitated toward SUVs because they couldn't make any money on regular cars.
This sorry situation might change now. Thanks to the new contracts with the UAW -- that allow the companies to hire new workers for lower wages and to buy their way out of lifetime health-care guarantees to legions of retirees -- the Detroit Three finally might find profits in the smaller, fuel-efficient vehicles that more Americans now want. Likewise, market forces are spurring research on alternative engine technologies that could produce a breakthrough in five to 15 years.
CAFE is unnecessary at best and damaging at worst. The regulatory costs might wipe out much of Detroit's savings from the new labor agreements.
"California Eager to Hit Detroit with Ineffective Fuel Rules, But Won't Consider Increasing Gas Tax":
California already has the power to battle climate change. It, like all other states, can raise its gasoline tax any time it wants. And raising the price of driving by increasing the gasoline tax, most economists agree, is the fastest way to get drivers to drive less and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles.
But there is no groundswell for a gas tax hike in California, where even the nation's greenest electorate recoils at the idea of putting its money where its mouth is.
THE ECONOMIST -- Technology is spreading to emerging markets faster than it has ever done anywhere. The World Bank looked at how much time elapsed between the invention of something and its widespread adoption (defined as when 80% of countries that use a technology first report it; see above). For 19th-century technologies the gap was long: 120 years for trains and open-hearth steel furnaces, 100 years for the telephone. For aviation and radio, invented in the early 20th century, the lag was 60 years. But for the PC and CAT scans the gap was around 20 years and for mobile phones just 16. In most countries, most technologies are available in some degree.
More technology news: In April, the communist regime in North Korea plans to lift its 4-year ban on the use of mobile phones. Maybe that will reduce price dispersion like in Niger, except that prices are probably all controlled in N. Korea by the government, so there is no dispersion.
The 2001 Russian flat rate income tax reform (flat rate of 13%, see chart above) has often been heralded as a success story and has been credited with large increases in tax revenues and an improved business climate. Although it has been difficult to differentiate between myth and reality with the Russian experience, many other transitional countries have followed suit with flat rate income tax reforms, and an increasing number of countries around the world are considering the adoption of a flat rate income tax.
In this paper we focus on the impact of the flat income tax rate on tax evasion, an issue that was, and continues to be, a major problem in Russia as well as in many other transition and developing countries. We argue that the flat tax reform was instrumental in decreasing tax evasion and that, to a certain extent, greater fiscal revenues for Russia in 2001 and several years beyond can be linked to increased voluntary tax compliance and reporting (see chart above).
The most significant reduction in tax evasion was for taxpayers that experienced the largest decrease in tax rates after the flat rate income tax was introduced. We also find that this decline in tax evasion was likely due to changes in voluntary compliance as opposed to greater enforcement effort by the tax administration authorities.
Adam Smith was a remarkably insightful guy. He not only figured out how expanding trade allows the division of labor, thereby creating wealth and raising living standards, he alsorealized how hard it is to get people to believe they're better off than their ancestors. He discovered declinism way back in 1776: "The annual produce of the land and labour of England is certainly much greater than it was, a century ago. Few people doubt this, yet during this period, five years have seldom passed in which some book or pamphlet has not been published pretending to demonstrate that the wealth of the nation was fast declining, that the country was depopulated, agriculture neglected, manufactures decaying, and trade undone. Nor have these publications been all political party pamphlets. Many of them have been written by very candid and very intelligent people, who wrote nothing but what they believed, and for no other reason but because they believed it."
Nowadays, candid and intelligent people--not to mention partisans--tell us that the average American's standard of living has barely budged in decades. Supposedly only the rich are living better, while everyone else stagnates or falls behind.
Continue reading Virginia Postrel's excellent Forbes article "The American Standard of Whining" here. (It's from September 2006, but still just as relevant today as then.)
Global Strength Powers CAT to Record Sales, Profit
On today's CBS Sunday Morning program, there was a story about:
BOOM TOWN: Peoria, Illinois: It's home to Caterpillar tractors. As the U.S. economy slides downwards, Caterpillar's sales worldwide are booming. Cat has been adding jobs in the U.S. and reporting record profits for the last four years.We take a look at a global success story in the heart of Illinois. From Caterpillar's 4Q 2008 Earnings Release:
PEORIA, Ill. -- Caterpillar Inc. (NYSE: CAT) announced the fifth straight year of record sales and revenues and the fourth consecutive year of record profit. For 2007, sales and revenues were $45 billion, up 8%, and profit per share was up 4% from 2006. The company also reported record fourth quarter sales and revenues of $12 billion, 10% higher than the fourth quarter of 2006, and profit per share up 14% from a year ago.
“Our broad global footprint has enabled us to benefit from strong economic growth outside the United States, as global markets for mining, energy and infrastructure development are booming,” said Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Jim Owens.
And thanks to a strong global economy, 2008 looks even better for CAT:
"We are forecasting 2008 to be the sixth consecutive year of record sales and revenues driven by strength in the economies outside North America, strong worldwide engine demand and a slight rebound in on-highway truck engine sales. These factors will more than offset continued weakness in the North American machinery market.
We expect 2008 to be the fifth consecutive year of record profit per share, a reflection of our broad global footprint and diverse products and services." 2007 Sales Summary for Catepillar Machinery:
North America: -11% (-$1.6 billion)
Europe, Africa, Middle East: +38% (+$2.4 billion)
Latin America: +24% (+$0.60 billion)
Asia Pacific: +31% (+$0.90 billion) Overall Sales: +9% ($2.3 billion)
Comment: Caterpillar's story seems increasingly common. Despite a slowdown in U.S. sales, CAT's overall global sales are strong, more than "offsetting weakness in the North American market," allowing U.S.-based MNCs like CAT to remain profitable and healthy in spite of weakness here (see sales figures above, and see chart above showing America's declining share of world GDP using IMF data).
This kind of support from overseas markets makes this economic slowdown (not yet a recession) different from past periods. For example, in the 1990-1991 recession and recessions before that (and during previous economic slowdowns), I don't think CAT and other U.S. manufacturers had the kind of support from markets outside the U.S. that exists today. See this related CD post.